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Calendar Of Science – July
Every month, Pacific Science Center publishes a Calendar of Science, a compendium of science facts to add a little knowledge to your daily routine. Read on and discover a few things you may not have known. If you would like to receive a daily dose of science, subscribe to Calendar of Science on Twitter. Have a comment or question? Please drop us a line. Remember, life’s boring without discovery.
June 30, 1948: The transistor was demonstrated by its inventors, John Bardeen & Walter Brattain, scientists at Bell Telephone Laboratory.
July 1 1889- The Berlin Urania, world’s first science center, opened to the public.
July 2 1906- Birthday of physicist Hans Bethe, discovered that stars shine by nuclear fusion, converting hydrogen into helium.
July 3 1886- Engineer Karl Benz demonstrated first internal combustion automobile. It reached a top speed of 10 miles per hour.
July 4 1054- A supernova appeared in the constellation Taurus and was observed by astronomers who called it a guest star.
July 5 1687- Physicist/mathematician Isaac Newton published his proposed the three laws of motion and the law of gravity.
July 6 1885- Microbiologist Louis Pasteur used a vaccine against rabies for the first time to save the life of a nine year old boy.
July 7 1752- Birthday of silk weaver Joseph Jacquard, who invented the punch card. He used it to control the operation of a loom.
July 8 1851- Birthday of archaeologist Arthur Evans, discovered and excavated the Palace of Knossos on the island of Crete.
July 9 1894- Birthday of engineer Percy Spencer, who invented the microwave oven.
July 10 1856- Birthday of physicist Nikola Tesla, built the first induction motor, among many other things.
July 11 1732- Birthday of astronomer Joseph Jérôme de Lalande, compiled a catalogue of over 47,000 stars.
July 12 1854- Birthday of inventor George Eastman, invented the Kodak camera, the first to use rolls of film.
July 13 1995- NASA spacecraft Galileo released a probe into the atmosphere of Jupiter.
July 14 1965- The Mariner 4 satellite took the first close-up photographs of Mars.
July 15 1915- Birthday of chemist Albert Ghiorso, led a team which created four of the trans-uranium elements (numbers 103 to 106).
July 16 1994- First fragments of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 struck Jupiter. 21 fragments collided with Jupiter over 6 days.
July 17 1894- Birthday of Georges Lemaître, proposed the universe was created by an explosion, first version of the Big Bang theory.
July 18 1853- Birthday of physicist Hendrik Lorentz, proposed the theory that objects in motion contract in the direction they are moving.
July 19 1799- Near Rosetta, Egypt, Napoleon’s troops discovered a basalt tablet inscribed in three languages. The Rosetta stone.
July 20 1969- The Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin became the first people to walk on the moon.
July 21 1620- Birthday of astronomer Jean Picard, who made the first accurate measurement of the Earth’s circumference.
July 22 1822- Birthday of botanist Gregor Mendel, who discovered the laws of heredity.
July 23 1928- Birthday of astronomer Vera Rubin, who discovered that galaxies consist mostly of dark matter.
July 24 1911- Archaeologist Hiram Bingham discovered Machu Picchu, the lost city of the Incas, in the Peruvian Andes.
July 25 1920- Birthday of biochemist Rosalind Franklin, took the first photographs of DNA molecule, clearly showing its helical structure.
July 26 1894- Birthday of author Aldous Huxley, who wrote Brave New World, in which he warned of the dangers of advanced technology.
July 27 1870- Birthday of Bertram Boltwood, discovered how to determine the age of rocks using radioactive isotopes which they contain.
July 28 1904- Birthday of physicist Pavel Cherenkov, who discovered what is now called Cherenkov radiation.
July 29 1796- Birthday of engineer Walter Hunt, who invented the safety pin.
July 30 1889- Birthday of engineer Vladimir Zworykin, invented the cathode-ray picture tube used in TV sets and computer monitors.
July 31 1752- The Schönbrunn Zoo opened in Vienna, Austria. World’s first zoo, and it is still in operation.