Pacific Science Center

Bringing science to life.

 

Calendar Of Science – January

Every month, Pacific Science Center publishes a Calendar of Science, a compendium of science facts to add a little knowledge to your daily routine. Read on and discover a few things you may not have known. If you would like to receive a daily dose of science, subscribe to Calendar of Science on Twitter. Have a comment or question? Please drop us a line. Remember, life’s boring without discovery.


Dec. 31, 1938-Dr. Harger invented the first breath testing machine for car drivers for the analysis of blood alcohol content.
Jan. 1, 1996: The last individual of the snail species Partula turgida (the Polynesian Tree Snail) died at the London Zoo.
Jan. 2, 1936: The first electron tube to enable night vision was described, in Missouri.
Jan. 3, 1999: The U.S. Mars Polar Lander was launched.
Jan. 4, 1809: Birthday: Louis Braille, inventor of braille system of reading and writing for use by the blind or visually impaired.
Jan. 5, 1933: Construction work on San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge began on the Marin County side.
Jan. 6, 1971: The first synthetic production of growth hormones was announced by Berkeley chemists.
Jan. 7, 1913: William Merriam Burton was issued a U.S. patent for the thermal cracking of crude oil.
Jan. 8, 1942: Birthday: Stephen Hawking, a pioneer in theoretical cosmology and quantum gravity.
Jan. 9, 1950: Birthday: Sir Alec Jefferys, who discovered the technique of DNA fingerprinting.
Jan. 10, 1899: U.S. patent issued for an “Electric Device,” invented by David Misell, manufactured as the “Flash Light” by Conrad Hubert.
Jan. 11, 1922: Insulin was first used in humans for the treatment of diabetes.
Jan. 12, 1886: U.S. patent issued for an “Apparatus for Cooling and Disinfecting” to Lewis H. Latimer.
Jan. 13, 1978: NASA selected its first class of U.S. women astronauts.
Jan. 14, 1794: Elizabeth Bennett became the first woman in the U.S. to successfully give birth to a child by a Cesarean section.
Jan. 15, 1907: Dr Lee de Forest was issued a patent for the three-element vacuum tube, a device for amplifying feeble electric currents.
Jan. 16, 1969: Two manned Soviet Soyuz spaceships became the first vehicles to dock in space and transfer personnel.
Jan. 17, 1929: Edwin Hubble communicated the now classic paper that first showed the universe was expanding.
Jan. 18, 1933: Birthday: Ray Dolby, who invented the Dolby Noise Reduction Systems.
Jan. 19, 1875: Thomas A. Edison was issued a patent on a Telegraph Apparatus.
Jan. 20, 1994: A gene test was reported in Nature which could predict the likelihood of osteoporosis in later life at an early age.
Jan. 21, 1799: Edward Jenner’s smallpox vaccination was introduced.
Jan. 22, 1939: The uranium atom was split for the first time using the cyclotron at Columbia University in New York City.
Jan. 23, 1896: Wilhelm Röntgen first made a public lecture-demonstration of his X-ray device, Germany.
Jan. 24, 1950: The original microwave oven patent was issued to Percy Spencer under the title “Method of Treating Foodstuffs”.
Jan. 25, 1955: Scientists at Columbia University developed an atomic clock accurate to within one second in 300 years.
Jan. 26, 1911: Birthday: Polykarp Kusch, who determined that the magnetic moment of the electron is greater than its theoretical value.
Jan. 27, 1950: Science magazine announced the new antibiotic terramycin, made by Charles Pfizer & Co.
Jan. 28, 1613: Galileo may have unknowingly viewed the undiscovered planet of Neptune.
Jan. 29, 1960: An artificial kidney that can operate without human monitoring was announced.
Jan. 30, 1868: Charles Darwin’s book – Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication – was published.
Jan. 31, 1961: The U.S. launched a male chimpanzee named Ham on a Mercury-Redstone 2 rocket into suborbital flight.

Calendar Of Science – February

Every month, Pacific Science Center publishes a Calendar of Science, a compendium of science facts to add a little knowledge to your daily routine. Read on and discover a few things you may not have known. If you would like to receive a daily dose of science, subscribe to Calendar of Science on Twitter. Have a comment or question? Please drop us a line. Remember, life’s boring without discovery.


Feb. 1, 1944: O.T. Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty identified DNA as the hereditary agent in a virus.
Feb. 2, 1935: The detective Leonard Keeler conducted the first use of his invention, the Keeler polygraph, or lie detector machine.
Feb. 3, 1925: A newspaper published a report of the first “missing link” fossil, named Australopithecus africanus, found by Raymond Dart.
Feb. 4, 1936: The U.S. produced the first radioactive substance synthetically, radium E, by bombarding the element bismuth with neutrons.
Feb. 5, 1861: A U.S. patent was issued for the kinematoscope – a photographic attempt to show motion – to Coleman Sellers.
Feb. 6, 1886: The element germanium was discovered by German chemist, Clement Winkler.
Feb. 7, 1932: The Neutron was first described by James Chadwick, who discovered it by bombarding Beryllium with alpha particles.
Feb. 8, 1700: Birthday: Daniel Bernoulli, as in Bernoulli Principle, the total mechanical energy of the flowing fluid remains constant.
Feb. 9, 1996: Element 112, now called, Copernicium, was created for the first time in Germany.
Feb. 10, 1863: The first fire extinguisher was patented by Alanson Crane of Virginia.
Feb. 11, 1994: The genetically engineered growth hormone for cows goes on sale to dairy farmers under the name Posilac, made by Monsanto.
Feb. 12, 1941: The first injection of penicillin into a human test subject was conducted by Ernst Chain and Howard Walter Florey.
Feb. 13, 1946: The world’s first electronic digital computer, ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator), first demonstrated.
Feb. 14, 1888: Thomas Edison was issued a patent for a “Telephone-Transmitter.”
Feb. 15, 1951: The first atomic reactor to be used in medical therapy treated its first patient at the Brookhaven National Laboratory.
Feb. 16, 1937: Wallace H. Carothers received a patent for nylon, the first synthetic polymer.
Feb. 17, 1888: Birthday: Otto Stern, won Nobel prize for development of the molecular beam for studying the characteristics of molecules.
Feb. 18, 1930: Planet Pluto discovered by Clyde Tombaugh, compared two photographic plates taken six days apart the previous month.
Feb. 19, 1878: The phonograph was patented by Thomas A. Edison.
Feb. 20, 1962: John Glenn piloted the Mercury-Atlas 6 Friendship 7 spacecraft on the first U.S. manned orbital mission.
Feb. 21, 1947: Edwin H. Land first demonstrated the first instant camera, the Polaroid Land camera.
Feb. 22, 1997: Scientists in Scotland announced the birth of the world’s first successfully cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep.
Feb. 23, 1960: F.M. Jones was issued a U.S. patent for a “Thermostat and Temperature Control System.”
Feb. 24, 1955: Birthday: Steve Jobs, an American technology entrepreneur, visionary and inventor, who co-founded Apple Inc.
Feb. 25, 1837: Thomas Davenport received a patent for the first practical electrical motor.
Feb. 26, 1935: Robert Watson-Watt demonstrated the feasibility of radar (RAdio Detection And Ranging) in England.
Feb. 27, 1879: Saccharin, the artificial sweetener, was discovered by Constantin Fahlberg.
Feb. 28, 1951: The theoretical description of the structure of proteins was published by Linus Pauling and Robert Corey.

Calendar Of Science – March

Every month, Pacific Science Center publishes a Calendar of Science, a compendium of science facts to add a little knowledge to your daily routine. Read on and discover a few things you may not have known. If you would like to receive a daily dose of science, subscribe to Calendar of Science on Twitter. Have a comment or question? Please drop us a line. Remember, life’s boring without discovery.


March 1, 1896: Henri Becquerel accidentally discovered spontaneous radioactivity.
March 2, 1908:Gabriel Lippman introduced the new three-dimensional color photography at the Academy of Sciences.
March 3, 1847: Birthday: Alexander Graham Bell, the inventor of the telephone.
March 4, 1991: The “Rotoblator,” an artery cleaning tool, was announced by Dr. Maurice Buchbinder.
March 5, 1872: George Westinghouse Jr. received a U.S. patent for his “Improvement in Steam-Air Brakes” for use on railroads.
March 6, 1899: Acetylsalycilic acid, better known by its tradename as Aspirin, was patented by Felix Hoffmann.
March 7, 1996: The first surface photos of Pluto, taken by Hubble Space Telescope, were released.
March 8, 1618: Johannes Kepler formulated his Third Law of Planetary Motion.
March 9, 1934: Birthday: Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin, who was the first man to travel into space.
March 10, 1797: The concept of a geometrical interpretation of complex numbers was presented by Caspar Wessel.
March 11, 105: Ts’ai Lun invented paper, made from bamboo, mulberry, and other fibers, along with fish nets and rags.
March 12, 1923: The Phonofilm, the first motion picture with a sound-on-film track, developed by Dr. Lee De Forest was demonstrated.
March 13, 1882: The zoopraxiscope, an optical apparatus to exhibit photographs of moving animals, was presented by Eadweard J. Muybridge.
March 14, 1879: Birthday: Albert Einstein, who developed the special and general theories of relativity.
March 15, 1950: Terramycin, which was found effective against pneumonia, dysentery, and other infections, was approved by the FDA.
March 16, 1966: The first US manned docking of two spacecraft was accomplished by the Gemini VIII.
March 17, 1950: A radioactive element 98, named “californium” was announced by scientists at the University of California, Berkeley.
March 18, 1987: The discovery of “high-temperature” superconductivity was announced at American Physical Society.
March 19, 1883: Birthday: Norman Haworth, determined the chemical structures of various carbohydrates, worked on synthesis of vitamin C.
March 20, 1916: Albert Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity was published as an academic paper in Annalen der Physik.
March 21, 1925: Wolfgang Pauli published “exclusion principle,” 2 nearby electrons can’t be in exactly the same state at the same time.
March 22, 1960: The first laser was patented by Arthur Schawlow and Charles Hard Townes as “Masers and Maser Communications System.”
March 23, 1993: The identification of the gene that causes Huntington’s disease was announced.
March 24, 1882: Dr. Robert Koch announced the discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB).
March 25, 1655: Christiaan Huygens discovered Titan, Saturn’s largest satellite and the easiest to observe.
March 26, 1953: Dr. Jonas Salk announced a new vaccine to immunize people against polio.
March 27, 1933: Polyethylene, one of the earliest plastics for common use, was discovered by Reginald Gibson and Eric William Fawcett.
March 28, 1797: Nathaniel Briggs received a patent for a washing machine.
March 29, 1974: Mariner 10, launched on 3 Nov 1973, took the first close-up pictures of Mercury.
March 30, 1950: Dr. John Northrup Shive announced the invention of the phototransistor which is operated by light rather than electric current.
March 31, 1981: A new single cell genetically engineered life form patent was issued to Ananda Chakrabarty.

Calendar Of Science – April

Every month, Pacific Science Center publishes a Calendar of Science, a compendium of science facts to add a little knowledge to your daily routine. Read on and discover a few things you may not have known. If you would like to receive a daily dose of science, subscribe to Calendar of Science on Twitter. Have a comment or question? Please drop us a line. Remember, life’s boring without discovery.


April 1, 1960: The first weather observation satellite, Tiros I (Television Infrared Observation Satellite), launched from Cape Kennedy.
April 2, 1935: Sir Robert Watson-Watt was granted a patent for the RADAR (RAdio Detection And Ranging).
April 3, 1966: Luna 10, the first spacecraft to orbit the moon entered lunar orbit, and completed its first orbit 3 hours later.
April 4, 1969: Dr. Denton Cooley implanted a first total artificial heart into a 2-month-old patient.
April 5, 1877: Birthday: Walter Sutton, provided first evidence that chromosomes carry the units of inheritance and occur in distinct pairs.
April 6, 1938: Roy J. Plunkett and Jack Rebok accidentally discovered polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), later marketed as Teflon.
April 7, 1964: IBM launched System/360, a family of six mutually compatible computers and 40 peripherals that could work together.
April 8, 1886: Dr. Carl Gassner, was issued a German patent for the first “dry” cell, which used zinc as its primary ingredient.
April 9,  1895: James Keeler made a spectrogram and proved that the rings of Saturn were composed of meteoric particles.
April 10, 1944: The first synthetic quinine, an anti-malarial drug, was produced by Drs. Woodward and Doering at Harvard University.
April 11, 1957: A Ryan X-13 Vertijet became the first jet to take-off and land vertically at Edwards Air Force Base, California.
April 12, 1988: First U.S. patent issued on a mammal life form to Philip Leder and Timothy Stewart for a genetically engineered mouse.
April 13, 1960: The first U.S. navigational satellite, the Transit-1B was launched from cape Canaveral, Florida on a Thor-Ablestar rocket.
April 14, 1932: The atom was split by a proton beam by Cockcroft and Walton who had developed first nuclear particle accelerator.
April 15,  1952: The hydrogen thryatron(an electronic switching tube filled with gas) was patented by K. Germeshausen.
April 16, 1943: The hallucinogenic effect of the drug LSD, lysergic acid diethylamide, was first observed by Albert Hofmann.
April 17, 1930: The discovery of a new rubber-like synthetic compound was recorded by Dr. Arnold M. Collins.
April 18, 1940: Birthday: Joseph L. Goldstein who won Nobel prize for elucidating the process of cholesterol metabolism in the human body.
April 19, 1971: Salyut 1, the first operational space station, launched from the Soviet Union.
April 20, 1940: Vladimir Zworykin demonstrated the first electron microscope in the United States.
April 21, 1838: Birthday: John Muir, Scottish-born naturalist who was considered the father of the environmental movement.
April 22, 1970: The first nationwide Earth Day was celebrated in the U.S. as an environmental awareness event.
April 23, 1981: Ioannis V. Yannas first transplanted artificial skin on patients at Massachussetts General Hospital, Boston.
April 24, 1928: The fathometer (an instrument that measured underwater depths) was patented by Herbert Grove Dorsey.
April 25, 1990: The Hubble Space Telescope was deployed in space from the Space Shuttle Discovery into an orbit 381 miles above Earth.
April 26, 1986: One of the four reactors at the Chernobyl nuclear plant exploded in the world’s worst civil nuclear catastrophe.
April 27, 1791: Birthday: Samuel F. B. Morse who is famous for developing the Morse Code (1838).
April 28,  1932: A vaccine was announced for yellow fever for human immunization.
April 29, 1994: The discovery of a gene in a mammal (a mouse) that regulates the body’s internal “biological clock” was reported.
April 30, 1897: J.J. Thomson first announced the existence of electrons (as they are now named) at the Royal Institution.

Calendar Of Science – May

Every month, Pacific Science Center publishes a Calendar of Science, a compendium of science facts to add a little knowledge to your daily routine. Read on and discover a few things you may not have known. If you would like to receive a daily dose of science, subscribe to Calendar of Science on Twitter. Have a comment or question? Please drop us a line. Remember, life’s boring without discovery.


May 1, 1949-Gerard Kuiper discovered Nereid, 2nd satellite of Neptune, the outermost and the 3rd largest of Neptune’s known satellites.
May 2, 1800-William Nicholson 1st to produce a chemical reaction by electricity (electrolysis of water).
May 3, 1968-Dr. Denton Cooley performed 1st heart transplant in U.S. on Everett Thomas, his heart was damaged from rheumatic heart disease.
May 4, 2003-The first cloned equine, a mule foal was born at the University of Idaho using a cell from a mule fetus and an egg from a horse.
May 5, 1961-Alan Bartlett Shepherd, Jr. became 1st American in space by making a 15 minute sub-orbital flight on Freedom 7 spacecraft.
May 6, 1851-A U.S. patent issued to John Gorrie for “Improved Process for the Artificial Production of Ice” (refrigerator).
May 7, 1992-The space shuttle Endeavour blasted off on its maiden voyage carrying seven NASA astronauts.
May 8, 1961-The 1st practical seawater conversion plant in the U.S. was opened in Freeport, Texas.
May 9, 1962-A pulse light laser beam sent by scientists from MIT successfully bounced off the moon, 1st lunar laser ranging experiment.
May 10, 1852- Theory of valence (any atom can combine with a certain, limited number of other atoms) announced by Sir Edward Frankland.
May 11, 1811- The original Siamese twins, Chang and Eng, were born of Chinese parents in Siam (Thailand).
May 12, 1820-Birthday: Florence Nightingale (“The Lady With The Lamp”) who established modern nursing practice.
May 13, 1890-Nikola Tesla issued a patent for an electric generator.
May 14, 1796-Edward Jenner administered 1st vaccination against smallpox to an 8-year-old boy.
May 15, 1953-Stanley Miller’s paper on synthesis of amino acids under conditions that simulated primitive Earth’s atmosphere published.
May 16, 1960-Physicist Theodore Maiman uses a synthetic-ruby crystal to create the first laser.
May 17, 1955-The highly classified U.S. patent for 1st atomic pile was finally issued, 11 years after it had been filed.
May 18, 1967- The 1st legalization of human artificial insemination in the U.S. was enacted by the state of Oklahoma.
May 19, 1896-Edward Acheson was issued a patent for an electric furnace used to produce carborundum (silicon carbide).
May 20, 1990-The Hubble Space Telescope sent its 1st photograph from space, an image of a double star 1,260 light years away.
May 21, 1873-Birthday: Hans Berger, invented electroencephalography (EEG) (the recording of “brain waves”).
May 22, 1989-The 1st successful transfer of cells containing foreign genes into a human being performed at National Institutes of Health.
May 23, 1930-New U.S. Plant Patent Act allowed patent protection for new and distinct varieties of asexually reproduced plants.
May 24, 1892-Thomas Edison issued three patents for an “Electric Locomotive” and a fourth patent relating to an “Electric Railway”.
May 25, 1940- Howard Florey and Ernst Chain successfully tested penicillin in one of the most famous animal tests in medical history.
May 26, 1931-A microfilm camera was patented by George L. McCarthy.
May 27, 1931-The 1st U.S. full scale wind tunnel for testing airplanes was opened in Langley Field Research Center, Virginia.
May 28, 1959-Two monkeys, Able and Baker, were fired into space becoming the 1st living creatures to survive a space flight.
May 29, 1919-During a total solar eclipse, Sir Eddington performed the 1st test and proved Einstein’s general theory of relativity.
May 30, 1898-Morris William Travers, while working with Sir Willam Ramsay in London, discovered the element krypton.
May 31, 1852-Birthday: Richard Julius Petri, a bacteriologist who invented Petri dish.

Calendar Of Science – June

Every month, Pacific Science Center publishes a Calendar of Science, a compendium of science facts to add a little knowledge to your daily routine. Read on and discover a few things you may not have known. If you would like to receive a daily dose of science, subscribe to Calendar of Science on Twitter. Have a comment or question? Please drop us a line. Remember, life’s boring without discovery.


June 1, 1947: The development of photosensitive glass was announced publicly in Corning, N.Y.
June 2, 1896: The first radio patent was filed by Guglielmo Marconi in England for his wireless telegraphy apparatus.
June 3, 1880: Alexander Graham Bell transmitted the first wireless telephone message on his newly-invented photophone.
June 4, 1984: Scientists cloned the DNA of the quagga — an extinct horse-like striped animal-extracted from a 140-year-old skin.
June 5, 1977: The first personal computer, the Apple II, invented by Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs, went on sale.
June 6, 1899: Thomas A. Edison was issued a patent for his “Filament for Incandescent Lamps, and Process of Manufacturing Same.”
June 7, 1980: The first U.S. government solar power plant was dedicated at Natural Bridge National Monument, Utah.
June 8, 1940: The discovery of element 93, neptunium (Np) was announced by Edwin M. McMillan and Philip H. Abelson.
June 9, 1905: Albert Einstein published his analysis of Max Planck’s quantum theory and its application to light.
June 10, 1955: The first report of the separation of tobacco  virus into its component parts was made in the U.S.
June 11, 1644: Evangelista Torricelli demonstrated the principles of the mercury barometer.
June 12, 1965: The discovery of blue galaxies was announced which supports the Big Bang theory of the creation of the universe.
June 13, 1933: The first sodium-vapor lamps were installed in a test run on Balltown in New York.
June 14, 1972: An end to the continued domestic usage of the pesticide was decreed by Environmental Protection Agency.
June 15, 1844: Charles Spencer Goodyear received U.S. Patent for vulcanization, a rubber-curing process.
June 16, 1657: The first pendulum clock was patented by its inventor, Christiaan Huygens.
June 17, 1920: Birthday: François Jacob, who together with Jacques Monod, showed how production of protiens from DNA is regulated.
June 18, 1981: The first genetically engineered vaccine was announced to prevent hoof and mouth disease using gene splicing.
June 19, 1963: Valentina Tereshkova returned to Earth after spending nearly three days as the first woman in space.
June 20, 1840: Samuel F.B. Morse received a U.S. patent for his dot-dash telegraphy signals, known to the world as Morse code.
June 21, 1948: The first stored-program computer, the Small-Scale Experimental Machine, ran its first program written by Tom Kilburn.
June 22, 1978: The first moon of Pluto, Charon, was discovered by astronomer James W. Christy at the US Naval Observatory.
June 23, 1964: U.S. patent issued to Jack S. Kilby for his invention of “Miniaturized Electronic Circuits” now known as integrated circuits.
June 24, 1927: Birthday: Martin Lewis Perl who discovered a subatomic particle, the tau, a massive lepton with a negative charge.
June 25, 1924: Tuberculosis vaccine was developed by Prof Albert Calmette and Alphonse Guerin.
June 26, 2000: The completion of a working draft reference DNA sequence of the human genome was announced.
June 27, 1978: Seasat, an experimental U.S. ocean surveillance satellite was launched.
June 28, 1886: Discovery of fluorine gas by Henri Moissan was announced at the Paris Academy of Science.
June 29, 1994: The first nearly-complete fossil of a pygmy mammoth skeleton was found on Santa Rosa Island.
June 30, 1948: The transistor was demonstrated by its inventors, John Bardeen & Walter Brattain, scientists at Bell Telephone Laboratory.

Calendar Of Science – July

Every month, Pacific Science Center publishes a Calendar of Science, a compendium of science facts to add a little knowledge to your daily routine. Read on and discover a few things you may not have known. If you would like to receive a daily dose of science, subscribe to Calendar of Science on Twitter. Have a comment or question? Please drop us a line. Remember, life’s boring without discovery.


July 1 1889- The Berlin Urania, world’s first science center, opened to the public.
July 2 1906- Birthday of physicist Hans Bethe, discovered that stars shine by nuclear fusion, converting hydrogen into helium.
July 3 1886- Engineer Karl Benz demonstrated first internal combustion automobile. It reached a top speed of 10 miles per hour.
July 4 1054- A supernova appeared in the constellation Taurus and was observed by astronomers who called it a guest star.
July 5 1687- Physicist/mathematician Isaac Newton published his proposed the three laws of motion and the law of gravity.
July 6 1885- Microbiologist Louis Pasteur used a vaccine against rabies for the first time to save the life of a nine year old boy.
July 7 1752- Birthday of silk weaver Joseph Jacquard, who invented the punch card. He used it to control the operation of a loom.
July 8 1851- Birthday of archaeologist Arthur Evans, discovered and excavated the Palace of Knossos on the island of Crete.
July 9 1894- Birthday of engineer Percy Spencer, who invented the microwave oven.
July 10 1856- Birthday of physicist Nikola Tesla, built the first induction motor, among many other things.
July 11 1732- Birthday of astronomer Joseph Jérôme de Lalande, compiled a catalogue of over 47,000 stars.
July 12 1854- Birthday of inventor George Eastman, invented the Kodak camera, the first to use rolls of film.
July 13 1995- NASA spacecraft Galileo released a probe into the atmosphere of Jupiter.
July 14 1965- The Mariner 4 satellite took the first close-up photographs of Mars.
July 15 1915- Birthday of chemist Albert Ghiorso, led a team which created four of the trans-uranium elements (numbers 103 to 106).
July 16 1994- First fragments of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 struck Jupiter. 21 fragments collided with Jupiter over 6 days.
July 17 1894- Birthday of Georges Lemaître, proposed the universe was created by an explosion, first version of the Big Bang theory.
July 18 1853- Birthday of physicist Hendrik Lorentz, proposed the theory that objects in motion contract in the direction they are moving.
July 19 1799- Near Rosetta, Egypt, Napoleon’s troops discovered a basalt tablet inscribed in three languages. The Rosetta stone.
July 20 1969- The Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin became the first people to walk on the moon.
July 21 1620- Birthday of astronomer Jean Picard, who made the first accurate measurement of the Earth’s circumference.
July 22 1822- Birthday of botanist Gregor Mendel, who discovered the laws of heredity.
July 23 1928- Birthday of astronomer Vera Rubin, who discovered that galaxies consist mostly of dark matter.
July 24 1911- Archaeologist Hiram Bingham discovered Machu Picchu, the lost city of the Incas, in the Peruvian Andes.
July 25 1920- Birthday of biochemist Rosalind Franklin, took the first photographs of DNA molecule, clearly showing its helical structure.
July 26 1894- Birthday of author Aldous Huxley, who wrote Brave New World, in which he warned of the dangers of advanced technology.
July 27 1870- Birthday of Bertram Boltwood, discovered how to determine the age of rocks using radioactive isotopes which they contain.
July 28 1904- Birthday of physicist Pavel Cherenkov, who discovered what is now called Cherenkov radiation.
July 29 1796- Birthday of engineer Walter Hunt, who invented the safety pin.
July 30 1889- Birthday of engineer Vladimir Zworykin, invented the cathode-ray picture tube used in TV sets and computer monitors.
July 31 1752- The Schönbrunn Zoo opened in Vienna, Austria. World’s first zoo, and it is still in operation.

Calendar Of Science – August

Every month, Pacific Science Center publishes a Calendar of Science, a compendium of science facts to add a little knowledge to your daily routine. Read on and discover a few things you may not have known. If you would like to receive a daily dose of science, subscribe to Calendar of Science on Twitter. Have a comment or question? Please drop us a line. Remember, life’s boring without discovery.


Aug 1, 1774- Joseph Priestley, an english chemist, identified a gas which he called “dephlogisticated air” later known as oxygen.
Aug 2, 1820- Birthday: John Tyndall, demonstrated scattering of light by atmospheric particles & absorption of infrared radiation by gases.
Aug 3, 1908- A nearly complete skeleton of a Neanderthal was found in cave in France, by Amédée and Jean Bouyssonie.
Aug 4, 1922- Telephone service in the United States and Canada was silent for one minute at sunset to mark the funeral of Graham Bell.
Aug 5, 1973- Mars 6, also known as 3MP No.50P, was launched by Soviet Union using a Proton-K carrier rocket to explore Mars.
Aug 5, 1930- Birthday: American astronaut Neil Armstrong, the first man to walk on the Moon.
Aug 6, 1881- Birthday: bacteriologist/Nobel prize winner, Alexander Fleming, discovered Penicillin while working on influenza virus.
Aug 7, 1959- Explorer 6, a small spheroidal satellite was launched by NASA to study upper atmosphere and photograph earth’s cloud cover.
Aug 8, 1829- The first steam locomotive in the U.S., the Stourbridge Lion, was used between coal mines in Pennsylvania.
Aug 9, 1945- An atomic bomb was exploded by U.S. over Nagasaki, Japan During World War II, killing over 40,000 people.
Aug 10, 1897- Aspirin, a stable form of acetylsalicylic acid and famous pain reliever, was created by Dr. Felix Hoffman.
Aug 11, 1877- Astronomer Asaph Hall discovered two moons of Mars, likely composed of rock and ice. He named them Phobos and Deimos.
Aug 12, 1981- IBM’s first personal computer IBM 5150 was put on sale for $1,565 with a 4.7 MHz CPU, 16 kB RAM, 40 kB ROM & floppy drives.
Aug 13, 1844- Birthday: Swiss biologist Friedrich Miescher, the first to isolate and identify nucleic acid, which he then called nuclein.
Aug 14, 1894- The first wireless transmission using Morse code signalling via radio waves was shown by Oliver Lodge at Oxford University.
Aug 15, 1914- The Panama canal was inaugurated with American vessel, Ancon, sailing from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
Aug 16, 2003- Element 110 was named officially Darmstadium, Ds by IUPAC after the town of Darmstadt where it was discovered.
Aug 17, 1970- Soviet Union launched Venera 7. Four months later it landed on Venus, 1st spacecraft to land successfully on another planet.
Aug 18, 1774- Birthday of explorer Merriwether Lewis, who along with William Clark led an expedition to explore the Louisiana Territory.
Aug 19, 1839- Physicist Louis Daguerre announced the invention of a method for taking photographs.
Aug 20, 1977- NASA launched Voyager 2, which over the next twelve years flew past Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.
Aug 21, 1665- Birthday of astronomer Giacomo Maraldi, who discovered that Mars’ polar caps change in size during the Martian year.
Aug 22, 1920- Birthday of sci-fi author Ray Bradbury, who wrote Fahrenheit 451 and The Martian Chronicles, among many others.
Aug 23, 2002- The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory or LIGO began its attempt to detect gravity waves.
Aug 24, 79 – Mount Vesuvius erupted, burying the Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. They were rediscovered in 1748.
Aug 25, 1989- The Voyager 2 spacecraft made its closest approach to Neptune, taking dozens of photographs and finding six new moons.
Aug 26, 1883- In the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia), the volcano Krakatoa began a three day eruption. It was heard as far away as Chile.
Aug 27, 1875- Lecoq de Boisbaudran discovered the element gallium.
Aug 28, 1845- Rufus Porter published the first issue of Scientific American.
Aug 29, 1831- Physicist Michael Faraday demonstrated the first electrical transformer.
Aug 30, 1992- Astronomers Jane Luu, David Jewitt discovered the first Kuiper Belt object, which was given the name 1992 QB1.
Aug 31, 1821- Birthday of physicist Hermann von Helmholtz, discovered the principle of conservation of energy.

Calendar Of Science – September

Every month, Pacific Science Center publishes a Calendar of Science, a compendium of science facts to add a little knowledge to your daily routine. Read on and discover a few things you may not have known. If you would like to receive a daily dose of science, subscribe to Calendar of Science on Twitter. Have a comment or question? Please drop us a line. Remember, life’s boring without discovery.


Sept. 1, 1914- Passenger Pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius) became extinct, the last surviving bird died at the Cincinnati Zoo.
Sept. 2, 1877- Birthday: Frederick Soddy who won Nobel Prize in chemistry for his work on radioactive substances.
Sept. 3, 1914- Birthday: Dixy Lee Ray, a marine biologist, who was the first director of the Pacific Science Center.
Sept. 4, 1882- The Edison Electric station, first electric power plant in the U.S., began operation in the New York City.
Sept. 5, 1977- Voyager 1 was launched by NASA to closely explore the large moon Titan and behind Saturn’s rings.
Sept. 6, 1978-  Successful laboratory production of human insulin using recombinant DNA technology was announced by U.S. scientists.
Sept. 7, 1936- The last Tasmanian tiger (Thylacine), called Benjamin, died at the Hobart Zoo in Australia.
Sept. 8, 1930- Richard Drew developed scotch tape which was marketed by 3M as the first waterproof, transparent, pressure sensitive tape.
Sept. 9, 1945- Grace Hopper discovered first “bug” in a computer program, was traced to a moth stuck between a relay in the machine.
Sept. 10, 1984- DNA fingerprinting was discovered by Alec Jeffreys in Leicester, England, while studying hereditary diseases in families.
Sept. 11, 1946- The first long-distance car-to-car phone conversation occurred between Houston, Texas and St. Louis, Missouri.
Sept. 12, 1958- Jack Kilby presented an electronic circuit at Texas instruments which is now recognized as the first integrated circuit.
Sept. 13, 1898- Hannibal Goodwin issued a patent for the invention of “nitro cellulose transparent flexible photographic film pellicles.”
Sept. 14, 1716- The first American lighthouse, Boston light, built by the colony of Massachusetts was lit for the first time.
Sept. 15, 1885- Constantin Fahlberg was issued a patent for saccharine, the artificial sweetener.
Sept. 16, 1987- The “Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer” signed to phase out ozone depleting substances by 2000.
Sept. 17, 1901- Peter Cooper Hewitt was issued a patent for mercury vapor lamp, a high intensity discharge lamp.
Sept. 18, 1907- Birthday: Edwin Mattison McMillan, an American physicist who discovered the first transuranium element, neptunium.
Sept. 19, 1991- Otzi the Iceman, a well-preserved mummy of a man who lived around 3,300 BCE was discovered in the Otztal Alps, Europe.
Sept. 20, 1952- Alfred Hershey, Martha Chase published findings of their so-called blender experiment confirming DNA holds hereditary data.
Sept. 21, 2003- NASA’s Galileo spacecraft’s 14-year mission came to an end when it disintegrated in Jupiter’s dense atmosphere.
Sept. 22, 1791- Birthday: Michael Faraday, who greatly contributed to the understanding of electromagnetic induction.
Sept. 23, 1846- Johann Gottfried Galle discovered the 8th planet from the sun, Neptune, at the Berlin Observatory.
Sept. 24, 1960- The USS Enterprise, the first nuclear-powered Navy aircraft carrier, was launched in Virginia.
Sept. 25, 1956- The first transatlantic telephone cable system, TAT-1, was launched between Clarenville, Newfoundland to Oban, Scotland.
Sept. 26, 1991- Four men and women entered Biosphere 2 (Oracle, Arizona), a sealed glass and space-frame structure containing 5 biomes.
Sept. 27, 1910- Haber & Rossignol issued a patent for the production of Ammonia directly from its component gases, hydrogen and nitrogen.
Sept. 28, 1969- A meteorite fell over the town of Murchison, in Australia. The total collected mass exceeded 100 kg.
Sept. 29, 1920- Birthday: Peter Mitchell, who showed how ADP is converted into the energy-carrying ATP in the mitochondria of living cells.
Sept. 30, 1882- The world’s first hydroelectric power plant began operation on the Fox River in Appleton, Wisconsin.

Calendar Of Science – October

Every month, Pacific Science Center publishes a Calendar of Science, a compendium of science facts to add a little knowledge to your daily routine. Read on and discover a few things you may not have known. If you would like to receive a daily dose of science, subscribe to Calendar of Science on Twitter. Have a comment or question? Please drop us a line. Remember, life’s boring without discovery.


Oct. 1, 1958- NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Agency) started operating officially with five facilities.
Oct. 2, 1956- The first commercially available caesium atomic clock, Atomichron, was unveiled at New York City.
Oct. 3, 1899- John S. Thurman was issued a patent for motor-driven vacuum cleaner as “pneumatic carpet renovator”.
Oct. 4, 1957- The Soviet Union launched the first man made satellite, Sputnik, into the orbit around the earth.
Oct. 5, 1923- Edwin Hubble identified a special class of pulsating star, a Cepheid variable, can be used to measure large cosmic distances.
Oct. 6, 1997- Stanley Prusiner won Nobel Prize for discovery of Prions (innocuous cellular proteins), a biological principle of infection.
Oct. 7, 1885- Birthday: Niels Bohr who was best known for his research into atomic structure and quantum theory.
Oct. 8, 1958- Dr Åke Senning implanted the first internal heart pacemaker in a subcutaneous pouch of a patient.
Oct. 9, 1604- Keplers Supernova was discovered in the constellation of Ophiuchus in the western sky.
Oct. 10, 1846- Triton, Neptune’s largest moon was discovered by British astronomer William Lassell.
Oct. 11, 1968- Apollo 7, the first manned Apollo mission,  was launched on a Saturn 1-B rocket from Cape Kennedy.
Oct. 12, 1928- An iron lung artificial respirator that regulates air pressure to help a person breathe, used for the first time in Boston.
Oct. 13, 1884- Greenwich adopted as the Prime Meridian, the zero degrees longitude by the International Meridian Conference, Washington.
Oct. 14, 1863- Alfred Nobel was issued first of his 355 patents for the preparation of nitroglycerine.
Oct. 15, 1878- Edison Electric Light Company was established in New York by Thomas Edison along with leading financiers.
Oct. 16, 1964- China successfully detonated a 22 kiloton warhead code named 596 and became world’s fifth nuclear power.
Oct. 17, 1855- Sir Henry Bessemer was issued a patent for making steel by blasting compressed air through molten iron.
Oct. 18, 1962- James Watson, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery of structure of DNA.
Oct. 19, 1967- Mariner 5 spacecraft which was launched on June 14, 1967, arrived in the vicinity of Venus for planetary exploration.
Oct. 20, 1906- Three-element vacuum tube (triode) which can amplify weak signals was announced by Lee DeForest.
Oct. 21, 1833- Birthday: Alfred Nobel who invented the dynamite and established the Nobel Prize.
Oct. 22, 1938- Chester F. Carlson demonstrated xerography for the first time.
Oct. 23, 1814- Joseph Carpue performed the West’s first modern plastic surgery on a British military officer in England.
Oct. 24, 1851- William Lassell discovered two moons of Uranus, Umbriel and Ariel.
Oct. 25, 1671-Giovanni Cassini discovered Iapetus, one of Saturn’s moons.
Oct. 26, 1948-Donora, a small town in Pennsylvania was covered with smog killing 20 people and harming several others.
Oct. 27, 1904- The first underground line of the U.S. subway rail system opened in the New York city.
Oct. 28, 1955- Birthday: Bill Gates who co-founded Microsoft, the world’s largest PC software company.
Oct. 29, 1971- The first successful use of electricity to repair a bone fracture was reported  at the University of Pennsylvania.
Oct. 30, 1958- Dr. F. Mason unintentionally performed the first coronary angiogram at the Cleveland clinic.
Oct. 31, 1815- Sir Davy of London was issued a patent for miner’s safety lamp.

Calendar Of Science – November

Every month, Pacific Science Center publishes a Calendar of Science, a compendium of science facts to add a little knowledge to your daily routine. Read on and discover a few things you may not have known. If you would like to receive a daily dose of science, subscribe to Calendar of Science on Twitter. Have a comment or question? Please drop us a line. Remember, life’s boring without discovery.


Nov. 1, 1977- Charles Kowal discovered the farthest known asteroid, Chiron, on a photographic plate.
Nov. 2, 2000- International Space Station received its first three permanent residents, who traveled there in Soyuz spacecraft.
Nov. 3, 1664- Robert Hooke presented an advanced copy of his classic book “Micrographia” to the Royal Society in London.
Nov. 4, 1946- The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) Constitution became effective.
Nov. 5, 1895- George Selden was issued patent for an improved road engine powered by a “liquid-hydrocarbon engine of the compression type.”
Nov. 6, 1638- Birthday: James Gregory who invented the reflecting telescope, and contributed to the development of the calculus.
Nov. 7, 1996- The first successful mission to the red planet in 20 years, Mars Global Surveyor was launched.
Nov. 8, 1895- Wilhelm Röntgen first accidently discovered X-rays during an experiment in Würzburg.
Nov. 9, 1991- Nuclear fusion was first harnessed to produce a significant amount of power in Culham, England.
Nov. 10, 1974- An MIT group and a SLAC-Berkeley group simultaneously announced the discovery of the “charmed quark” subatomic particle.
Nov. 11, 1851- Avlan Clark of Cambridge, Massachusetts was issued a patent for an improved telescope design.
Nov. 12, 1833- The great shower of the Leonid Meteors was recorded.
Nov. 13, 1971- Mariner 9, the first spacecraft to orbit another planet (Mars) was launched.
Nov. 14, 1985- The first discovery of a fullerene, a spherical cluster of carbon atoms, was published in the journal Nature.
Nov. 15, 1887- Carl Gassner received patent for the first “dry” cell with zinc as the container as well as the negative electrode.
Nov. 16, 1904: John Ambrose Fleming invented and patented the first vacuum tube, the thermionic valve.
Nov. 17, 1970: A U.S. patent was issued to Doug Engelbart for an “X-Y Position Indicator for a Display System” – computer mouse.
Nov. 18, 1883: Standard time system in the U.S., first proposed by Charles F. Dowd, went into effect at noon for the first time.
Nov. 19, 1956: Birthday: Eileen Marie Collins who was the first female pilot and first female commander of a U.S. Space Shuttle.
Nov. 20, 1923: Garrett Morgan was granted a U.S. patent for his three-position traffic signal.
Nov. 21, 1818: Birthday: Lewis Henry Morgan who was a principal founder of scientific anthropology.
Nov. 22, 1977: Supersonic Concorde began a trial for regular passenger service between New York and Europe.
Nov. 23, 1964: Dr. Michael E. DeBakey and his team performed the first successful coronary artery bypass graft procedure in Houston.
Nov. 24, 1859: Charles Darwin published “On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection” in England.
Nov. 25, 1948: Leroy “Ed” Parsons invented the cable television and the inaugural broadcast was from a TV station in Seattle.
Nov. 26, 1894: Birthday: Norbert Wiener, mathematician who found the science of cybernetics.
Nov. 27, 1963: Centaur II, the first space vehicle powered by a liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen fuel combination, was launched.
Nov. 28, 1967: Jocelyn Bell Burnell observed the first pulsar in Cambridge, England.
Nov. 29, 1813: The discovery of iodine was made public by Nicolas Clément, in the name of its discoverer, Bernard Courtois.
Nov. 30, 1886: The first commercially successful U.S. alternating current power plant was opened in New York by George Westinghouse.

Calendar Of Science – December

Every month, Pacific Science Center publishes a Calendar of Science, a compendium of science facts to add a little knowledge to your daily routine. Read on and discover a few things you may not have known. If you would like to receive a daily dose of science, subscribe to Calendar of Science on Twitter. Have a comment or question? Please drop us a line. Remember, life’s boring without discovery.


Dec. 1, 1936-Brundin and Lyon received a U.S. patent for a hydroponics system (soilless culture of plants).
Dec. 2, 1957-The first full-scale atomic electric generating station in the U.S. began operation in Shippingport, Pennsylvania.
Dec. 3, 1984-A poisonous gas, methyl isocyanate, leaked from the Union Carbide factory in Bhopal, India, world’s worst industrial disaster.
Dec. 4, 1908-Birthday-Alfred Day Hershey, who discovered the fact that DNA was the genetic material of life.
Dec. 5, 1969-The U.S. Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) connected four computer network nodes in four universities.
Dec. 6, 1850-Hermann von Helmholtz demonstrated his revolutionary ophthalmoscope to the Berlin Physical Society.
Dec. 7, 1888-John Boyd Dunlop was issued a British patent for his pneumatic or air-filled tyre.
Dec. 8, 1931-Espenschied and Affel were awarded U.S. patent for a “concentric conducting system,” now known as coaxial cable.
Dec. 9, 1960-The Sperry Rand Corporation, in Minnesota unveiled the Univac 1107, the first electronic computer with thin-film memory.
Dec. 10, 1901-The king of Sweden distributed the first Nobel Prizes at the first Nobel Prize Award Ceremony.
Dec. 11, 1997-Global warming conference was held in Kyoto, Japan where over 150 countries agreed to control the Earth’s greenhouse gases.
Dec. 12, 1955-Christopher Cockerell, father of the hovercraft air-cushion vehicle, filed his first patent for the hovercraft.
Dec. 13, 1962-The first U.S. communications earth satellite, Relay I, was launched.
Dec. 14, 1967-Arthur Kornberg announced the first synthesis of biologically active DNA in a test tube.
Dec. 15, 1612-Simon Marius observed Andromeda galaxy through a telescope, the most distant object that can be seen by the unaided eye.
Dec. 16, 1929-Birthday-Bruce Nathan Ames who developed the Ames test, an indicator of the carcinogenicity of chemicals.
Dec. 17, 1903-Orville and Wilbur Wright made the first successful flight in history of a self-propelled, heavier-than-air aircraft.
Dec. 18, 1958-The first American communications satellite, Project SCORE (Signal Communications by Orbiting Relay Equipment) was launched.
Dec. 19, 1902-The first fingerprint file in the U.S. was initiated.
Dec. 20, 1900-Invention of Musical Arcs, by William Du Bois Duddell, was reported.
Dec. 21, 1933-Dr. Flosdorf and Stuart Mudd prepared dried human blood serum at the University of Pennsylvania.
Dec. 22, 1938-The first coelacanth, a primitive fish thought extinct, was discovered in East London.
Dec. 23, 1947-John Bardeen and Walter Brattain demonstrated the first transistor at Bell Laboratories in New Jersey.
Dec. 24, 1936-Ernest Lawrence, inventor of the cyclotron, administered the first radioactive isotope medicine at Berkeley.
Dec. 25, 1741-Astronomer Anders Celsius devised the Centigrade temperature scale.
Dec. 26, 1898-Marie and Pierre Curie discovered the radioactive element radium while experimenting with a common uranium ore.
Dec. 27, 1822-Birthday-Louis Pasteur who discovered the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.
Dec. 28, 2005-The first in a series of satellites, named Galileo, was launched by a consortium of European governments and companies.
Dec. 29, 1888-The Great Nebula in Andromeda, M31, was photographed by Isaac Roberts.
Dec. 30, 1913-Dr. Coolidge patented a method for making ductile tungsten for the filaments of electric lamps.
Dec. 31, 1938-Dr. Harger invented the first breath testing machine for car drivers for the analysis of blood alcohol content.

 

 

Girl with flowers in her hair using a microscope