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Calendar Of Science – July
Every month, Pacific Science Center publishes a Calendar of Science, a compendium of science facts to add a little knowledge to your daily routine. Read on and discover a few things you may not have known. If you would like to receive a daily dose of science, subscribe to Calendar of Science on Twitter. Have a comment or question? Please drop us a line. Remember, life’s boring without discovery.
July 1 1889-The Berlin Urania, world’s 1st science center, opened to the public.
July 2 1906-Birthday of physicist Hans Bethe, discovered that stars shine by nuclear fusion, converting hydrogen into helium.
July 3 1886-Karl Benz demonstrated the first internal combustion automobile. It reached a top speed of 10 miles per hour.
July 4 1054-A supernova appeared in the constellation Taurus and was observed by Chinese astronomers. Its remnant now forms the Crab nebula.
July 5 1867-Birthday of astronomer Andrew Douglass, who developed a method of dating using tree rings, which he called dendro-chronology.
July 6 1885-Louis Pasteur used a vaccine against rabies for the first time to save the life of a nine year old boy.
July 7 1752-Birthday of silk weaver Joseph Jacquard, who invented the punch card. He used it to control the operation of a loom.
July 8 1851-Birthday of archaeologist Arthur Evans, discovered and excavated the Palace of Knossos, main center of Minoan civilization.
July 9 1894-Birthday of engineer Percy Spencer, who invented the microwave oven.
July 10 1856-Birthday of physicist Nikola Tesla, who built the first induction motor.
July 11 1732-Birthday of Joseph Jérôme de Lalande, who compiled a catalogue of over 47,000 stars.
July 12 1854-Birthday of George Eastman, who invented the Kodak camera, which was the first to use rolls of film.
July 13 1995-NASA spacecraft Galileo released a probe which entered the atmosphere of Jupiter.
July 14 1965-The Mariner 4 satellite took the first close-up photographs of Mars.
July 15 1915-Birthday of Albert Ghiorso, who led a team which created four of the trans-uranium elements (numbers 103 to 106).
July 16 1994-The first fragments of the comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 struck Jupiter.
July 17 1894-Birthday of Georges Lemaître, proposed the universe was created by an explosion. 1st version of the Big Bang theory.
July 18 1853-Birthday of Hendrik Lorentz, who proposed the theory that objects in motion contract in the direction they are moving.
July 19 1799-Near Rosetta, Egypt, Napoleon’s troops discovered a basalt tablet inscribed in three languages. The Rosetta stone.
July 20 1804-Birthday of paleontologist Richard Owen, who invented the word dinosaur.
July 20 1969-Apollo 11 astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin became the first people to walk on the moon.
July 21 1620-Birthday of Jean Picard, who made the first accurate measurement of the Earth’s circumference.
July 22 1822-Birthday of botanist Gregor Mendel, who discovered the laws of heredity.
July 23 1928-Birthday of Vera Rubin, discovered that galaxies consist mostly of dark matter which gives off no light or other radiation.
July 24 1911-Archaeologist Hiram Bingham discovered Machu Picchu, the lost city of the Incas, in the Peruvian Andes.
July 25 1920-Birthday of biochemist Rosalind Franklin, who took the first X-ray diffraction photographs of the DNA molecule.
July 26 1894-Birthday of Aldous Huxley, who wrote the novel Brave New World, in which he warned of the dangers of advanced technology.
July 27 1870-Birthday of Bertram Boltwood, discovered how to determine the age of rocks using the rate of decay of radioactive isotopes.
July 28 1904-Birthday of Pavel Cherenkov, discovered what is now called Cherenkov radiation.
July 29 1796-Birthday of engineer Walter Hunt, who invented the safety pin.
July 30 1889-Birthday of engineer Vladimir Zworykin, who invented the type of cathode-ray tube used in TVs and older computer monitors.
July 31 1752-The Schönbrunn Zoo opened in Vienna, Austria. World’s first zoo, and it is still in operation.